In women, the ovary is an important organ that produces the hormones estrogen and progesterone. They are located in the lower abdomen on either side of the uterus. Sometimes the ovaries can develop a fluid-filled sac called a cyst. Many women develop at least one cyst during their lifetime. In most cases, cysts are painless and cause no symptoms. Ovarian cysts usually do not cause dysfunction. Therefore, they often form and disappear unnoticed.
What are the causes of ovarian cysts?
The most common cause of ovarian cysts is hormonal irregularities. Normally, a cyst called a follicle, which carries the egg cell and can reach 3 cm in size, forms in the ovaries during each menstrual period. Then this cyst ruptures and the egg is released. If the egg is not fertilized, it is expelled after 14 days in the form of menstruation. However, if the woman has hormonal irregularities, the egg-bearing cysts do not rupture and continue to grow, forming a follicular cyst. The most common type of ovarian cyst in young people is the follicle cyst. They usually do not cause symptoms but may cause menstrual delay. They are usually 2-3 centimeters in size and do not require treatment. They do not cause any complications. Sometimes birth control pills can be used to shrink the cyst.
What are the symptoms of ovarian cysts?
Ovarian cysts often do not cause any symptoms. They are usually detected during routine check-ups. Pain is rare. In rare cases, severe pain may occur if the cysts rotate (torsion) or rupture (rupture). Menstrual irregularities, abdominal bloating and pain, digestive disorders and urinary tract complaints may also occur.
Types of ovarian cysts:
Inclusion cyst (non-functional cyst)
Corpus luteum cyst (cyst formed after ovulation)
Teka-lutein cyst (cyst due to excessive hormone secretion)
Luteoma of pregnancy
Dermoid cysts (cyst composed of hair, fat and other tissues)
Endometriomas (chocolate cyst)
Are ovarian cysts malignant? Can they be the reason for not being able to have children?
80-85% of ovarian cysts are benign and usually occur in women between the ages of 20-44. If the cause of their formation is hormonal irregularity, they can cause infertility.
How are ovarian cysts diagnosed?
Examination and ultrasound are sufficient for the diagnosis of ovarian cysts. In case of suspicion of cancer or for differential diagnosis, further radiological examinations are requested.
What are the treatment methods for ovarian cysts?
Treatment depends on the type of ovarian cyst. Simple cysts are usually monitored and birth control pills are used to shrink them. Antibiotic treatment is applied for inflammatory cysts. Cysts that exceed 8-10 cm in size or that grow continuously and are likely to be malignant in ultrasound and blood tests are removed by surgery. Your doctor may recommend surgical treatment to reduce or remove the cyst if it does not disappear on its own or if it grows.